1. Hector St John Crevecouer, ‘What is an American’, (Letter III) in Letters from an American Farmer (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1982) pp. 66–105. 

2. Frederick Douglass, A Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1982) chaps. 1–7, pp. 47–87. 

3. Henry David Thoreau, ‘Battle of the Ants’ excerpt from ‘Brute Neighbours’, in Walden (Oxford: OUP, 1997) chap. 12. 

4. Ralph Waldo Emerson, ‘Self Reliance’, in The Selected Writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson, ed. with a biographical introduction by Brooks Atkinson (New York: The Modern Library, 1964). 

5. Toni Morrison, ‘Romancing the Shadow’, in Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and Literary Imagination (London: Picador, 1993) pp. 29–39.